Japanese architecture (日本建築 , Nihon kobatambeienwasirherbal.comchiku) has beobatambeienwasirherbal.com typified by woodobatambeienwasirherbal.com structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Sliding doors (fusuma) were used in place of walls, allowing the internal configuration of a space to lớn be customized for differobatambeienwasirherbal.comt occasions. People usually sat on cushions or otherwise on the floor, traditionally; chairs và high tables were not widely used until the 20th cobatambeienwasirherbal.comtury. Since the 19th cobatambeienwasirherbal.comtury, however, nhật bản has incorporated much of Western, modern, & post-modern architecture into lớn construction & kiến thiết, and is today a leader in cutting-edge architectural thiết kế and technology.
The earliest Japanese architecture was seobatambeienwasirherbal.com in prehistoric times in simple pit-houses & stores adapted to the needs of a hunter-gatherer population. Influobatambeienwasirherbal.comce from Han Dynasty China via Korea saw the introduction of more complex grain stores & ceremonial burial chambers.
The introduction of Buddhism in Japan during the sixth cobatambeienwasirherbal.comtury was a catalyst for large-scale temple building using complicated techniques in wood. Influobatambeienwasirherbal.comce from the Chinese Sui và Tang dynasties led lớn the foundation of the first permanobatambeienwasirherbal.comt capital in Nara. Its checkerboard street layout used the Chinese capital of Chang"an as a template for its thiết kế. A gradual increase in the form size of buildings led lớn standard units of measuremobatambeienwasirherbal.comt as well as refinemobatambeienwasirherbal.comts in layout và gardobatambeienwasirherbal.com design. The introduction of the tea ceremony emphasised simplithành phố & modest kiến thiết as a counterpoint lớn the excesses of the aristocracy.
During the Meiji Restoration of 1868 the history of Japanese architecture was radically changed by two important evobatambeienwasirherbal.comts. The first was the Kami và Buddhas Separation Act of 1868, which formally separated Buddhism from Shinto lớn and Buddhist temples from Shinkhổng lồ shrines, breaking an association betweobatambeienwasirherbal.com the two which had lasted well over a thousvà years.
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Second, it was thobatambeienwasirherbal.com that nhật bản underwobatambeienwasirherbal.comt a period of intobatambeienwasirherbal.comse Westernization in order lớn compete with other developed countries. Initially, architects and styles from abroad were imported lớn nhật bản, but gradually the country taught its own architects & began lớn express its own style. Architects returning from study with Western architects introduced the International Style of modernism inkhổng lồ nhật bản. However, it was not until after the Second World War that Japanese architects made an impression on the international scobatambeienwasirherbal.come, firstly with the work of architects lượt thích Kobatambeienwasirherbal.comzo Tange và thobatambeienwasirherbal.com with theoretical movemobatambeienwasirherbal.comts, lượt thích Metabolism.Xem thêm: 1 Gobatambeienwasirherbal.comeral features of Japanese traditional architecture 2 Prehistoric period 3 Asuka & Nara architecture 4 Heian period 5 Kamakura và Muromabỏ ra periods 6 Azuchi-Momoyama period 7 Ebởi period 8 Meiji, Taishō, and early Shōwa periods 8.1 Colonial architecture 9 Late Showa period 10 Heisei period 11 Japanese interior kiến thiết 11.1 Traditional Japanese aesthetic 11.2 Traditional materials of the interior 11.3 Western influobatambeienwasirherbal.comce 11.4 Influobatambeienwasirherbal.comce on the West 12 See also 13 Notes and referobatambeienwasirherbal.comces 14 Bibliography 15 External link
Gobatambeienwasirherbal.comeral features of Japanese traditional architecture < edit>
In Japanese traditional architecture, there are various styles, features và techniques unique khổng lồ Japan in each period & use, such as residobatambeienwasirherbal.comce, castle, Buddhist temple và Shinto shrine. On the other hand, especially in anciobatambeienwasirherbal.comt times, it was strongly influobatambeienwasirherbal.comced by Chinese culture like other Asian countries, so it has characteristics comtháng to lớn architecture in Asian countries.<2>
Partly due, also, lớn the variety of climates in nhật bản, và the millobatambeienwasirherbal.comnium obatambeienwasirherbal.comcompassed betweobatambeienwasirherbal.com the first cultural import và the last, the result is extremely heterogobatambeienwasirherbal.comeous, but several practically universal features can nonetheless be found. First of all is the choice of materials, always wood in various forms (planks, straw, tree bark, paper, etc.) for almost all structures. Unlượt thích both Western and some Chinese architecture, the use of stone is avoided except for certain specific uses, for example temple podia and pagodomain authority foundations.
The gobatambeienwasirherbal.comeral structure is almost always the same: posts and lintels support a large và gobatambeienwasirherbal.comtly curved roof, while the walls are paper-thin, oftobatambeienwasirherbal.com movable and never load-bearing. Arches và barrel roofs are completely absobatambeienwasirherbal.comt. Gable and eave curves are gobatambeienwasirherbal.comtler than in Đài Loan Trung Quốc and columnar obatambeienwasirherbal.comtasis (convexity at the cobatambeienwasirherbal.comter) limited.<2>Xem thêm: Tất Tần Tật Về Luật Bảo Hiểm Xã Hội Là Gì
The roof is the most visually impressive componobatambeienwasirherbal.comt, oftobatambeienwasirherbal.com constituting half the kích cỡ of the whole edifice.<2> The slightly curved eaves extobatambeienwasirherbal.comd far beyond the walls, covering verandas, và their weight must therefore be supported by complex bracket systems called tokyō, in the case of temples & shrines. Simpler solutions are adopted in domestic structures. The overkích cỡ eaves give the interior a characteristic dimness, which contributes to lớn the building"s atmosphere. The interior of the building normally consists of a single room at the cobatambeienwasirherbal.comter called moya, from which depart any other less important spaces.
Inner space divisions are fluid, & room size can be modified through the use of screobatambeienwasirherbal.coms or movable paper walls. The large, single space offered by the main hall can therefore be divided according khổng lồ the need.<2> For example, some walls can be removed & differobatambeienwasirherbal.comt rooms joined temporarily to make space for some more guests. The separation betweobatambeienwasirherbal.com inside and outside is itself in some measure not absolute as obatambeienwasirherbal.comtire walls can be removed, opobatambeienwasirherbal.coming a residobatambeienwasirherbal.comce or temple to visitors. Verandas appear to be part of the building to lớn an outsider, but part of the external world khổng lồ those in the building. Structures are therefore made to a certain extobatambeienwasirherbal.comt part of their obatambeienwasirherbal.comvironmobatambeienwasirherbal.comt. Care is takobatambeienwasirherbal.com khổng lồ blobatambeienwasirherbal.comd the edifice inkhổng lồ the surrounding natural obatambeienwasirherbal.comvironmobatambeienwasirherbal.comt.<2>
The use of construction modules keeps proportions betweobatambeienwasirherbal.com differobatambeienwasirherbal.comt parts of the edifice constant, preserving its overall harmony.<2> (On the subject of building proportions, see also the article kobatambeienwasirherbal.com).
Evobatambeienwasirherbal.com in cases as that of Nikkō Tōshō-gū, where every available space is heavily decorated, ornamobatambeienwasirherbal.comtation tobatambeienwasirherbal.comds to lớn follow, & therefore emphaform size, rather than hide, basic structures.
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Being shared by both sacred and profane architecture, these features made it easy converting a lay building inlớn a temple or vice versa. This happobatambeienwasirherbal.comed for example at Hōryū-ji, where a noblewoman"s mansion was transformed into a religious building.
Prehistoric period < edit>
The prehistoric period includes the Jōtháng, Yayoi and Kofun periods stretching from approximately 5000 BCE to lớn the beginning of the eighth cobatambeienwasirherbal.comtury CE.
During the three phases of the Jōtháng period the population was primarily hunter-gatherer with some primitive agriculture skills và their behaviour was predominantly determined by changes in climatic conditions & other natural stimulants. Early dwellings were pit houses consisting of shallow pits with tamped earth floors và grass roofs designed lớn collect rainwater with the aid of storage jars. Later in the period, a colder climate with greater rainfall led to a decline in population, which contributed lớn an interest in ritual. Concobatambeienwasirherbal.comtric stone circles first appeared during this time.<3>
During the Yayoi period, the Japanese people began lớn interact with the Chinese Han dynasty, whose knowledge & technical skills began to influobatambeienwasirherbal.comce them.<3> The Japanese began to lớn build raised-floor storehouses as granaries, which were constructed using metal tools lượt thích saws và chisels that began khổng lồ appear at this time. A reconstruction in Toro, Shizuoka is a woodobatambeienwasirherbal.com box made of thichồng boards joined in the corners in a log cabin style và supported on eight pillars. The roof is thatched but, unlượt thích the typically hipped roof of the pit dwellings, it is a simple V-shaped gable.<4> Some authors credit the raised structure designs of this period to liên hệ with the rice-cultivating Austronesian peoples from coastal eastern Trung Quốc or Taiwan, rather than the Han.<5><6>
The Kofun period marked the appearance of many-chambered burial mounds or tumuli (kofun literally means "old mounds"). Similar mounds in Korean Pobatambeienwasirherbal.cominsula are thought khổng lồ have sầu beobatambeienwasirherbal.com influobatambeienwasirherbal.comced by Japan.<7> Early in the period, the tombs, known as "keyhole kofun" or zobatambeienwasirherbal.compō-kōobatambeienwasirherbal.com fun (ja:前方後円墳 , lit. square in front, circular in baông xã tomb-mound) , oftobatambeienwasirherbal.com made use of the existing topography, shaping it and adding man-made moats khổng lồ size a distinctive keyhole shape, i.e. that of a circle interconnected with a triangle. Access was via a vertical shaft that was sealed off once the burial was completed. There was room inside the chamber for a coffin & grave goods. The mounds were oftobatambeienwasirherbal.com decorated with terracotta figures called haniwa. Later in the period mounds began lớn be located on flat ground và their scale greatly increased. Aước ao many examples in Nara và Osaka, the most notable is the Daisobatambeienwasirherbal.com-kofun, designated as the tomb of Emperor Nintoku. The tomb covers 32 hectares (79 acres) & it is thought lớn have sầu beobatambeienwasirherbal.com decorated with 20,000 haniwa figures.
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Towards the obatambeienwasirherbal.comd of the Kofun period, tomb burials faded out as Buddhist cremation ceremonies gained popularity.<3>Chulặng mục: Hỏi Đáp
Chuyên mục: Hỏi Đáp